Full Professor of Theory and History of Education. University of Barcelona
Rosa Valls Carol, Full Professor of the Department of Theory and History of Education at the University of Barcelona, is deputy director of the Community of Research on Excellence for All – CREA. She has more than 25 years of experience in research of excellence in projects that are contributing to overcoming inequalities. She should be noted that she has directed four R&D projects of the National Plan, including the pioneering research on Gender Violence in Spanish Universities. In addition, she has been an official member of the research teams of dozens of projects, both national and international (R+D and applied research) on gender issues, gender violence, feminist studies, adult education, and the inclusion of groups. vulnerable. Her scientific work has been published in prestigious international indexed journals such as Violence Against Women, Qualitative Inquiry, and the Cambridge Journal of Education. And she has published several books including Learning Communities.
President Elect of the World Education Research Association (WERA)
Liesel Ebersöhn, (Director of the Centre for the Study of Resilience and Full Professor, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Pretoria) is a registered educational psychologist and expert on social dimensions of resilience that support positive health and wellbeing outcomes in severely challenged Southern African spaces. Through engagement in global education and poverty think tanks, panels and boards she is influential in Global South education development circles and actively supports education policy reform in the Global South based on evidence of resilience-enabling transformation in Africa. She is a recipient of numerous scientific association, national and institutional awards. She is the current World Education Research Association (WERA) Secretary-General and has been voted as WERA President Elect.
This panel raises one of the main questions that are already determining the impact and transforming capacity or the opposite of feminism. Will young girls want to be feminists if they see that the authors they refer to as Foucault or Simone de Beauvoir go against the ideals they defend and their desire for greater freedom?
Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Carme Garcia Yeste, is an associate Professor in the Department of Pedagogy at Rovira i Virgili University. Degree in Pedagogy and PhD in Sociology from the University of Barcelona. Member of the consolidated research group of the Generalitat de Catalunya: Methodology of Research with Social Impact (MEDIS). She has directed different projects at European and national level of the R+D+I plan among other programmes. She has been and is a member of different projects of the European Framework Programme and H2020. She is currently co-editor of the journal History and Social Education indexed in Scopus (2nd quartile) and in ESCI. She has published in different journals indexed in international databases such as: The Britisth Journal of Social Work, Journal of Mixed Methods, Teachers College Record, Qualitative Inquiry and Violence Against Women.
University of Deusto
Ana Vidu holds a Marie Sklodowska-Curie post-doctoral fellowship at the University of California, Berkeley, conducting the #UniswithHeart project on solidarity networks and mechanisms to prevent and respond to sexual harassment in universities. Ana is also an elected member of Executive Committee of the ESA (European Sociological Association) (2021-2024) and co-coordinator of the Research Network: Women’s and Gender Studies for the same period. Ana is also member of the ESA Research Stream on Sociology of Law as well as member of the International Sociological Association and the American Sociological Association, among other associations, such as the European Women Lawyers Association. Dr. Vidu has been Editorial Assistant of the ISA journal International Sociology (indexed in JCR) from 2015 to 2020. . She was co-founder (in 2013) of the “Solidarity Network of Victims of Gender Violence in Universities”, recognized as “Best practice” by the Women’s Foundation of the Spanish Equality Observatory. Dr. Vidu has participated in many international conferences in sociology and law spheres, also in competitive research projects and has published on gender violence, sexual consent, and isolating gender violence, in top journals such as Qualitative Inquiry, Frontiers in Psychology, Masculinities and Social Change, Feminist Media Studies or Sexuality Research and Social Policy.
Associate professor at the University of Barcelona
Lídia Puigvert is associate professor at the University of Barcelona. She is member of CREA. Community of Research on Excellence for All where she develop her research in gender, gender violence, sociology of education and dialogic theories. She was also responsible of gender area of the project INCLUD-ED. Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion from education in Europe (2006-2011) funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission. She coordinated the gender area of the project IMPACT-EV. Evaluating the impact and outcomes of European SSH research (2014-2017), funded by the 7h Framework Programme of the European Commission. Her research is focused in preventive socialization of gender violence, she has published about it in Violence Against Women and in Journal of Social Work Practice. She also investigates about “the other women” contributing to the international feminism highlighting the book “Women and social transformation” published jointly with Judith Butler and Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim. Lídia Puigvert participated in the first research in Spain about Gender Violence at Universities, the results has been included in the Spanish Law for the Effective Equality between Women and Men (2007), and generated the creation of the first protocol of prevention and action in front of the sexual assault of the spanish universities.
Those of us who work to ensure that education overcomes inequalities realize that the theories of Ausubel and Bourdieu do not serve to overcome them but instead reinforce them. Those of us who read the main works of scientific theories realize that the theories of Ausubel and Bourdieu are written without the authors having read the main works, in other words, they are intellectually and scientifically very mediocre theories.
University Wisconsin, Madison
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
University of the Basque Country
Harkaitz Zubiri Esnaola is Associate Professor at the University of the Basque Country in the field of initial teacher training in language learning. His lines of research focus on overcoming inequalities in education, mainly in language learning; cultural habits and cultural policies; and gender violence and masculinities.
Autonomous University of Barcelona
University of Barcelona
María Vieites Casado is researcher at the University of Barcelona, member of CREA and a European project manager. She has worked for the Spanish Ministry of Education as advisor to the Secretary of State. During that time, she was a member of the State School Council, the Higher Council for Artistic Education and the Forum for Inclusive Education. Since 2013, she has promoted the expansion and consolidation of the Latin American and European Network of Schools as Learning Communities, supporting governments, organisations and schools in the implementation of Successful Educational Actions in 19 different countries. She is a member of the Advisory Board of the REFUGE-ED Project. Her work on the social and political impact of Successful Educational Actions has been published in PlosOne, Cambridge Journal of Education and Qualitative Inquiry, among other scientific publications.
Save the Children, Sweden
Adnan Abdul Ghani, Migration Expert, Save the Children, Sweden. Adnan is a migration expert who works for Save the Children in Sweden, where he developed the Re-Act Model for refugees’ empowerment, self-organization and strategic cooperation. As a refugee from Syria, he started a movement to qualify refugees to lead community activities and initiated the Support Group Network (SGN), the first refugee-led organization in Sweden. Adnan is a thematic adviser for Region Västra Götaland for its regional development strategy 2020 to 2030 and a member of EU Commission Expert Group on migration, asylum and integration.
This panel will be a space to share, reflect and dialogue in relation to the educational evidence that allows us to analyze the past, understand the present and build the future of what is called Critical Physical Education. The current pandemic has deepened the great social inequalities present in today’s society and has allowed us to verify the need to reformulate pedagogical practices in the field of corporeity. Refilling what we call “criticism” with content can help us rebuild a current PE that is very methodologically focused but far from a reflection from which to understand the enormous diversity that sustains corporeal experience in the world.
Instituto Nacional de Educación Física de Cataluña
Universidad de Granada
Universidad de Valencia
Daniel Martos-García has a PhD in Physical Education from the University of Valencia. Currently is a full professor at the Faculty of Teacher Training at the same institution. His interests are focused on critical pedagogies in Physical Education and education in general, concretized in innovations related to democratic evaluation, the negotiation of the curriculum, cooperative methodologies or inclusion and coeducation. In this sense, he has been coordinator since its foundation, in 2015, of the Soca-rel critical Physical Education seminar, made up of teachers from all educational stages. Within the seminar, two books have been published that collect the fruits of various cycles of action-research. These are: “Physical Education and Critical Pedagogy. Proposals for personal and social transformation”, published in 2018 by the Universities of Lleida and València, and“ Physical Education as a tool for social transformation. Critical pretexts”, edited by Inde in 2021.
This panel proposes a journey from the times in which the university was governed by properly feudal principles and dynamics that promoted and silenced sexual harassment and isolating gender violence in the university context. The journey advances towards meritocracy and the democratization of science until today with the transformations that the wave of #MeToo University is promoting.
University of Barcelona
Ramón Flecha, Professor of Sociology and Doctor Honoris Causa from the West Timisoara University. His contributions have contributed to different areas of sociology, dedicating himself to deepen theories and practices that overcome social inequalities. He has been an expert in the European Commission of the Area of Social Sciences and Humanities of the 7th Research Framework Program of the European Union, appointed by the Ministry of Science and Innovation of Spain. He has been the principal researcher of the IMPACT-EV project. Evaluating the impact and outcomes of European SSH research (2014-2017), financed by the 7th Framework Program of the European Commission. He has been the principal investigator of the INCLUD-ED project. Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion from education in Europe (2006-2011), the only project in Social Sciences and Humanities included in the list that the European Commission published of the 10 most successful scientific investigations. From the beginning he has defended the victims of sexual harassment in the university, receiving for it isolating gender violence.
University of Barcelona
Elena Duque Sánchez, PhD in Pedagogy and professor at the Department of Theory and History of Education at the University of Barcelona. She has previously worked as a professor at the Autonomous University of Aguascalientes (Mexico), the National Distance Education University (UNED), the University of Girona (UdG), the National University of La Rioja (UNIR) and the International University of Valencia ( VIU). Her research topic is linked to Social Pedagogy, to overcoming social inequalities through education. She specifically worked on the prevention of gender violence in young people and adolescents. She has participated in several European projects, currently she is part of the ASTRAPI European project on gender violence in companies; the European SRSS project on the implementation of successful educational actions in educational policies in Portugal, and the R&D Consent project on communicative acts and consent in affective-sexual relationships. She has several publications in journals of scientific impact such as: Evidence & Policy, Psychodidactics, Qualitative Inquiry; Sustainability and Violence against Women among others.
University of Barcelona
Marta Soler Gallart, PhD from Harvard, she is Professor of Sociology and head of the Department of Sociology at the University of Barcelona and director of the CREA Researchers Network. She has been president of the European Sociological Association and is editor of International Sociology, the journal of the ISA. She has been a member of the Board of the European Alliance for the Social Sciences and Humanities, as well as the Board of Directors of ORCID. She has extensive experience in international research, notably the H2020 SOLIDUS project on solidarity in Europe in times of crisis, of which she was principal investigator. She has published in top-level journals such as Qualitative Inquiry, Current Sociology or Nature. Among her latest contributions we find the book ‘Achieving social impact. Sociology in the public sphere’ published by Springer.
Science, scientific development and ethics must go hand in hand. We are currently at the crossroads of developing research projects of the highest scientific rigor and social impact, ensuring ethical criteria in their development. In this panel we will delve into different ways of dealing with ethical issues in research, from qualitative and ethical research, to how to ensure ethical criteria with the participation of people from the beginning to the end of the research process. All this bearing in mind the ethical requirements that are currently being demanded from various instances, both European and national, to be able to carry out research in any area of knowledge.
Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Aitor Gómez, Professor in the Department of Pedagogy at the Rovira i Virgili University. He is Principal Investigator of the Consolidated Group recognized by the Generalitat de Catalunya, Methodology of Educational Research with Social Impact (MEDIS). He is currently the president of the Ethics Committee for Research on People, Society and the Environment (CEIPSA) of the URV. He has published fifty articles indexed in impact journals, 15 of them in journals indexed in JCR and participated in thirty competitive projects, directing two of them, the project “Overcoming Inequalities in Schools and Learning Communities: Innovative Education for a New Century” (SALEACOM), Marie Sklodowska-Curie Research and Innovation Staff Exchange (RISE) funded by the EU Framework Program for Research and Innovation HORIZON 2020 (2015-2017); the EDUFAM National R&D&i Plan project “Improvement of the educational system through the training of relatives of vulnerable groups” (2014-2017).
Authonomous University of Barcelona
José Luis Molina, Professor of the Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology at the Authonomous University of Barcelona and currently president of the Research Ethics Committee of the same university. He is an economic anthropologist interested in the cultural consequences of transnational social fields, interconnected through personal networks. He has been PI of national research projects in the field of migrations, acculturation and transnationalism. During his research career, he has collected data from personal networks (including projects funded by the NSF and ESF) of groups of emigrants of various nationalities (mainly American, African and Eastern European countries), ethnic and social entrepreneurs and vulnerable populations. In this work, he has faced the ethical dilemmas that appear in field work, especially when investigating emigrants or vulnerable populations. Currently, he collaborates with an international project led by the CNRS (France) in the field of digital platform workers. . He is the author of around one hundred scientific articles (half of them in indexed journals), book chapters and academic books. He is director or co-director of 21 doctoral theses, some of them international.
University of Agder
Anne Ryen is Professor of Sociology at University of Agder, Norway. She has been leader of research programmes in Norway and in East-Africa and publishes primarily on qualitative research methods and research ethics in cross-cultural contexts. Her publications include «Exploring or exporting? Qualitative methods in times of globalisation» (JSRM), “Trust in Cross-Cultural Research. The Puzzle of Epistemology, Research Ethics and Context” (QSW), “Fighting the crocodiles: Immigrant students and their perilous routes at campus”(QI), “Indigenous methods” (Sage Research Methods Foundation), “Research Ethics: Between Care and Control” (Silverman`s Qualitative Research (Sage UK) and “Assessing the Risk of Being Interviewed” (Sage US). At present she is editing the book A Research Agenda for Ethics and Qualitative Research (Elgar) and writing the chapter “Ethics and politics in qualitative research” (International Encyclopedia of Education 4e, Elsevier). She is Past President of the European Sociological Association`s Research Network “Qualitative Methods”(ESA RN20) and former member of ESA-Exec. She initiated the social science Eilert Sundt-Award in collaboration with the regional high schools.
Basque Country University
Teresa Campos López has a degree in Humanities (Heritage Conservation) from the University of Jaén. Later, she completed a postgraduate course in International Cultural Management at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. And she got her doctorate from the University of the Basque Country with her thesis: “What is preventive archeology for? A proposal from the (re)signification of heritage, archaeological practice and education”. She currently works at the UPV / EHU, as a professor in the Faculty of Education, in the Department of Didactics of Mathematics, Experimental and Social Sciences. Her lines of research cover areas such as the value creation processes of archaeological heritage and its socialization, especially linked to heritage education strategies. We can also talk about different works in the field of the inclusion of the gender perspective in cultural heritage and feminist archaeology, proposing (re) readings of the role of women and activities linked to the female sphere throughout history. and in the invisibility of the presence and role of women in different historical periods and in archaeological practice.
University of Valencia
Paula Jardón Giner is a specialist in Prehistory, Teacher Training and Didactics of Heritage. With an initial training in Geography and History and a thesis on prehistoric technology in traceology, she began her research career with a scholarship at the University of Liège (Belgium). Since 1996 she has been a member of the Gea-Cio group for innovation in social science teaching, with which she participates in action-research work and publications specialized in education. She is currently a professor in the Department of Didactics of Social Sciences at the University of Valencia. She is a researcher of the CREARI Research Group, of the Institute of Creativity and Educational Innovations of the University of Valencia and of the PASTWOMEN Project. Likewise, she has participated in the museographic design of the Prehistory Museums of Valencia, Archaeological Museums of Alicante, Alcoi, Villena, Almassora, Petrer, Gandía, Crevillent, Bicorp and Novelda. She is co-author of the projects for the Cuevas de la Araña Archaeological Park (Bicorp), Morella la Vella and the Aras de los Olmos Ecomuseum. In the academic field, she has held the following responsibilities: Vice Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and Educational Sciences (2012-2018), Vice Director of the Master’s Degree in Secondary School Professor (2017 to date), Coordinator of the courses: Training training for teachers in Peru (2016), Pedagogical and Didactic Training for FP technicians 2017-18, 18-19, and 2019-20.
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Marián López Fernández Cao is a professor of Artistic Education and professor at the Department of Didactics of Artistic Expression at the UCM. She has 5 research/transfer six-year terms and is the director of the EARTDI research group “Applications of Art in social inclusion”. She has been director of the Feminist Research Institute of the Complutense University of Madrid (2007-2011), president of the Association of Women in Visual Arts, MAV, (2012-2017). Since 2017, she is Vice President of the European Consortium for Art Therapy Education (ECARTE). She has received the 2010 Rosa Regas award for co-educational materials from the Andalusian Government for the educational collection “Possibilities of being through art”, 21 educational guides from the Eneida publishing house. She has received the First Prize for Technology and Knowledge Transfer in Social Sciences and Humanities 2017 for her mobile application “Madrid, Ciudad de las Mujeres” (MadridFem); the We Want to Communicate Award, from the Cultproyect Agency. Currently, she directs the European Power ERASMUS + project, which is what her presentation at this congress will be based on.
Pablo Camacho is a biochemist, oceanographer, and science communicator. He has worked on developing education, art, and culture activities at the National Cancer Research Center (CNIO) and as a scriptwriter for the popular science program Órbita Laika (La 2 on Radio Televisión Española). He is currently part of the Department of Scientific Culture and Innovation of the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT) – Ministry of Science and Innovation, coordinating and managing dissemination projects that have to do with the promotion of the scientific system and the culture, art and inclusive participation in science.
The FECYT works with a vocation for public service and citizen-oriented. Specifically, its mission is to catalyze the relationship between science and society, promoting the growth of Spanish scientific culture and promoting the transfer of knowledge through dissemination, education, training, information, and advice. He collaborates with other agents and actors of the Science, Technology and Innovation System in the internationalization of Spanish science and the generation and analysis of data, providing support in the management of scientific information and open science.
Authonomous Unmiversity of Barcelona
Teresa Sordé Martí is an associate professor at Serra Húnter in the Department of Sociology at the Autonomous University of Barcelona, and a researcher attached to GEDIME-CER-Migrations. She holds a PhD from the University of Barcelona (2004) and from Harvard University (2007). Her work has focused on the Roma community and migrants, and more recently she has been involved in the study of the social impact of research. Sordé Martí has participated in five research projects funded by the FP / H2020, and is currently the Principal Investigator of the H2020 REFUGE-ED (2021-23). She has been a member of the Panel of Experts on European Education and Training (2019) and is a member of the board of the EC DG European Toolkit for Schools which is part of the School Education Gateway. Her work has been published in journals such as Qualitative Inquiry, Ethnicities, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Journal of Interpersonal Violence and PLOSONE. Sordé Martí serves as the vice-president of the European Sociological Association and the president of the Catalan Sociological Association.
Miquel Guardiola, since July 2018, is a Socialization Technician at IPHES (www.iphes.cat), in which I have carried out various prehistoric socialization programs in different contexts, among which the following stand out: IPHES A LES ESCOLES: program for the scientific education of prehistory in schools and other types of educational centers, supporting the work of teaching teams, especially those with whom we have maintained relationships for years. Within this program: IPHES ALS BARRIS, aimed at the Poniente neighborhoods of the city of Tarragona, as well as other centers declared as “maximum complexity” by the Department of Education of the Generalitat. IPHES ALS CRAES: we actively participate in the “Extended Learning Time” program, run by the MEDIS group (Social Impact Educational Methodology), from the URV Department of Pedagogy), where we offer scientific activities to Residential Centers for Educational Action (CRAE). Business activity with the project “Esclats Prehistòries Didàctiques (1999-2018)”, in the field of activities in prehistory, demonstrations, and workshops in schools of all kinds and levels.
University of Valencia
Fernando Marhuenda Fluixá is a graduate and doctor in Philosophy and Educational Sciences from the University of Valencia, where he is a professor of didactics and school organization. He concentrates his teaching on the social education degree and the master’s degree in social economy at the UV. Coordinator of the research group Transitions (GIUV2013-093), with which he has studied the vocational training processes and the transitions between education and employment of people in vulnerable situations, in training contexts of preparation for work such as social guarantee programs (today basic professional training), insertion companies or second chance schools.
University of Valencia
Esther Roca Campos is a lecturer at the University of Valencia, in the Department of Comparative Education and History of Education. Her research focuses on Successful Educational Actions in diverse social groups and learning stages. Currently, she is chair of the first open-access platform for scientific evidence in education, “Adhyayana” and editor of REMIE, the internationally indexed Multidisciplinary Journal of Educational Research. The political impact of her contributions is characterised by having included in the training and innovation programmes on educational inclusion and violence prevention in the Valencian territory (2013-2016) the Successful Educational Actions whose social impact has been analysed in journals such as Qualitative Inquiry, Frontiers in Psychology and the IMPACT-EV project, of the 7th European Framework Programme. She was a member of the committee of experts in developing the Strategic Plan for School Coexistence of the Spanish Ministry of Education (2015-2016).
Universitat Rovida i Virgili
Aitana de la Varga Pastor is an associate professor at the Universitat Rovira i Virgili. She is a researcher in the Territory, Environment and Sustainability Research Group of the URV at the Center for Environmental Law Studies of Tarragona (CEDAT). She also belongs to the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Academy of Environmental Law and the ECOVER network, as well as other academic associations such as the AEPD and REDOEDA. She is specialized in the field of public law, especially administrative law and environmental law, such as the law of waste prevention and management, especially the circular economy, climate change and environmental defenders, which is added to other lines such as soil protection, among others. She is also part of national and international networks to promote Service Learning and legal clinics, such as the APS network and the ENCLE (Environmental Net of Clinical Legal Education). Currently, she is part of the dean’s team as the person in charge of teaching of law and the double degree in ADE Law.
University of Barcelona
María Carmen Llasat is a Professor of Atmospheric Physics at the University of Barcelona (UB) and has directed the GAMA Group since 1995. Her research and activity focus on climate change and hydrometeorological risks from a multidisciplinary approach, fields in which she has more than 200 scientific articles. She was chair of the Natural Hazards Section of the European Geophysical Society and editor-in-chief of Natural Hazards and Earth System Science. She has been a member of numerous international committees and projects, as well as the Advisory Council for Sustainable Development (CADS) of the Generalitat de Catalunya for more than 10 years. She is currently a member of the steering committee of the Mediterranean Experts group on Climate and Environmental Change (MedECC), among others. In addition to her research activity, she develops a strong informative activity and acts as a mentor to a large number of doctoral students.
Délégation Diocésaine des Migrations, Nador
Rodrigue Dombou Nguelefack is the social agent responsible for the Nadafa (hygiene) service and the RefAid application of the DDM (Diocesan Migration Delegation) in the East Zone (Nador), currently carries out the planning and organization of the service. He has been an emergency accommodation coordinator managing, among other tasks, the reception of new people in the accommodation; mediation and management of needs/appointments in the health services of the people housed; systematic collection of information on the services and activities carried out in the accommodations; preparation of reports for the coordination of the project. He is a volunteer social worker for the AMO project (Reception of Immigrants of Oujda) at the Catholic Church of Saint Louis in Oujda where he collaborates with the accompaniment for emergency cases at the level of hospital centers in Oujda, psychosocial monitoring of patients and vulnerable people in reception emergency, accompaniment of more than 30 young people in professional training at the National Relief level (pastry, auto mechanics, hairdressing, building electricity); OFPPT; private vocational training institute, etc. and help with administrative paperwork for all vulnerable people with the Oujda authorities (police headquarters, municipality, courthouse, OMDH, UNHCR, IOM).
Délégation Diocésaine des Migration, Nador
Maia Míguez Salas is an economist from the University of Granada, is currently studying the Double Degree Master Program in Economics at the universities of Fudan (China) and Groningen (The Netherlands). She has obtained a scholarship from the government of Shanghai (2021-2022) and has been the winner of the European Contest «Euroscola 2015». She has worked at the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation in Havana. She currently works at the Diocesan Migration Delegation in Nador, researching the impact of climate change on rural populations, on human migration in Morocco and participates in European research; HORIZON: Gender and social, economic and cultural empowerment, in collaboration with the University of Barcelona, developing climate change awareness activities for the NGO as well as contributing to the organization’s daily activities.
Délégation Diocésaine des Migrations, Nador
Anna Chierico is a student of the NOHA+ Erasmus Mundus Joint Master between the universities of Groningen and the University of Deusto where she develops a Program in International Humanitarian Action with a specialization in Protection with her thesis in international law and protection: “Analysis of protection gaps in the framework law of gender violence. The case of sub-Saharan women in Morocco”. At the Délégation Diocésaine des Migrations in Nador, she voluntarily performs legal assistance tasks such as supporting the migrant in the application for international protection or voluntary return through legal assistance and case follow-up. It is responsible for the education sector raising awareness about the importance of getting children into school, enrolls migrant children in primary schools through collaboration and confidence building with the regional education authority, organizes quarterly meetings with families and teachers to monitor the welfare of the creatures. She is also a security assistant as part of a project to protect against violence and abuse. She has participated as a volunteer in reception projects for refugees in different countries such as Italy, France and Greece.